As we map our road forward to a ‘COVID-normal’, what are we going to take with us and what will we leave behind?
This pandemic has hit pause on our routines and given us all a chance to reflect on the factors contributing to our wellbeing as individuals, organisations and as a society. We see cries for help to mental health hotlines spike, fears of domestic violence increase during iso and a general malaise of youth who were already struggling to envisage a bright future for themselves. Mental Health professionals are highlighting a secondary curve likely to escalate, that of mental health.
Last week I asked Dawn O’Neil AM, former CEO of both Beyond Blue and Lifeline, whether COVID19 was exacerbating or simply revealing our mental health issues? Dawn distilled over 20 years’ experience leading community mental health into a few hard-hitting points:
The difference between mental health and mental illness is still not properly acknowledged due to our choice of language
The coping strategies we all have in place as we slide up and down the mental health spectrum have been disrupted by COVID-19, allowing for a new conversation
The interconnectedness of mental health with our economic situation and our environment cannot be ignored
The difference between mental health and mental illness
“We are still not comfortable talking about mental illness. Mental Health is actually the absence of mental illness.” [Dawn O’Neil]
We know that Pre-COVID, mental illness statistics in developed countries were staggering. In Australia, one in five of us was already struggling with issues of mental illness (Royal Commission Interim report, 2019). Today, Chair of Beyond Blue Julia Guillard writes that ‘weekly contact volumes are now consistently about 40 percent higher than they were in the two months prior to the crisis’. She outlines some common themes, including ‘loneliness, exhaustion, job and financial worries, and family stress’ (SMH, 2020). Youth mental health service ReachOut has released new data showing visits to its online services have increased by 50 per cent compared to the same period in 2019, equating to more than 120,000 additional people seeking help (9news, 2020). A joint statement issued by the Australian Medical Association and leading mental health advocates said the COVID-19 modelling indicates a likely 25 percent increase in suicides, with about 30 percent of those being young people (AMA, 2020).
The trend is consistent globally, with a preliminary study in the US showing that post-COVID, participants were eight times as likely to screen positive for serious mental illness – 28%, compared to 3.4% in a comparable 2018 survey. Additionally, 70% of the 2020 participants met criteria for moderate to serious mental illness, compared with 22% in 2018 (The Conversation, 2020). In the UK, a preliminary study from The Academy of Medical Sciences shows people who felt that COVID-19 might threaten their livelihood – about 46% – said that they were now more depressed and enjoyed a lower quality of life (AMS, 2020).
On March 29, Australia’s National Cabinet designated a $74 million package to boost mental health services. Right now, the COVID-19 mental-health strategy is dominated by concerns about an increase in deaths by suicide, a rise in the incidence of depression and possible neurological damage caused by the virus, and rightly so. But community psychologist and senior lecturer at London’s Institute for Global Health says that too often, reactive policy measures forget half the equation, ‘Labelling a condition doesn’t make the social challenges around it disappear’ says Rochelle Burgess, ‘we need to address the social and economic conditions that contribute to poor mental health’. Rochelle writes, ‘A woman who has lost her job and cannot feed her family will find little relief from a meditation app’ (Burgess, 2020).
As the extent of mental illness in our society becomes more visible and is exacerbated by the pandemic, can we empower our mental health leaders to design more proactive and integrated strategies to support our mental health as a society, before illness becomes an issue? Chair of Beyond Blue, Julia Guillard advocates for the opportunity to adapt, saying, ‘we can swiftly design and implement reforms…workplaces are adapting, and governments are collaborating.” “That response doesn’t necessarily mean more of the same,” she said. “We must use this opportunity to change some of the structural and service gaps in the system, especially for where people live and where the biggest need is.” (Preiss, The Age, 2020)
Coping Strategies for mental health
“One of the strategies I love is thinking about is our hand, and how we care for something by wrapping our fingers around it. Having one strategy is not enough. To me, our five fingers represent the need to have five support strategies to help us stay mentally healthy.”
Dawn O’Neil points out that for many of us who would consider ourselves mentally healthy, COVID-19 has rendered our coping mechanisms null and void. Underlying issues of anxiety or depression that we may have normalised through routine coping strategies have been disrupted by COVID-19. What are the new strategies that we have put in place, and how will these serve us moving forward?
For some of us, the absence of social life has been a source of despair, for others, a source of relief. The slow down on spend, likewise, has meant stress and uncertainty for many, yet the simplicity of life in #iso has revealed how accelerated our pace of consumption had become. The ability to work from home has increased pressure on relationships and frustration over productivity in some instances while in others, the absence of travel time and office politics has been a welcome change. In an interview with Diversity Council Australia, current Beyond Blue CEO, Georgie Harman, says as much anxiety exists today around the return to normal, as it does staying in lockdown (DCA, 2020).
If there is one thing COVID-19 has revealed about mental health, it is the inextricable link to environmental and economic health. Beyond the initial focus on hygiene and distancing measures that will dominate the immediate return to ‘COVID-normal’, how can workplaces harness the learnings of mass remote working to design a new strategy for wellbeing? How can we modify our use of technology and digital communications to drive engagement and productivity? And how do we update our approach to a more integrated preventative ecosystem necessary to achieve mental health?
The ‘Five Finger Support Strategy’ model of wellbeing put forward by Dawn makes sense not only as a personal check-in, but as a reference point for government and company policies to take a multi-pronged and holistic approach to mental health. Dawn talks about ‘wrapping your hand around the problem’, and using our five fingers to cover off multiple approaches to the mental health of ourselves and others. She says these strategies will shift and change depending on the circumstance and challenges faced, the key point being the use of multiple approaches. To help individuals cope with social distancing measures, including working from home or self-isolation, tactics such as the STREAM checklist have emerged during COVID-19 (SANFL, 2020):
S – Social networking
Physical distancing is necessary, but it does not mean social networking cannot exist. Keep in touch with people through social media, phone calls or a text message.
T – Time out
Take time out from each other when at home for long periods. This will help minimise the ongoing stress of being in a limited space with others.
R – Relaxation, mindfulness or yoga
Managing anxiety can be helped through breathing, muscular relaxation exercises, mindfulness training, dancing, singing and yoga.
E – Exercise and entertainment
If you have a space where you can exercise, that’s always a good way to burn off energy. Alternatively, catch up on some reading, streaming services, digital or board games, hobbies, playing music, etc.
A – Alternative thinking
Understand uncertainty will lead to heightened tension and stress. It’s often useful to think things through, even by talking to someone else, e.g. a friend or a counsellor. We are all in this together.
M – Mindful of others
Remember, this is a short-term situation and we can all get through if we work together. Maintain caring relationships. Never forget that simple acts of kindness make us feel good about ourselves, the world and the future.
The circulation of models such as this, while by no means an exhaustive list, show our growing awareness as a community of the necessity for a holistic preventative approach to mental health and wellbeing. Yet still, many companies rely on access to EAP services as their key strategy for mental health. We know that while mental health costs Australian businesses $12.8billion annually (KPMG &Mental Health Australia, 2018), only 3.5% of employees utilise their EAP service (Society for Human Resource Management, 2019). How will businesses pivot their mental health strategies in COVID-normal?
Addressing the fragile ecosystem of mental health, economic health and environmental health.
‘Leaders need to think about what is within our control, how can we impact?’ [Dawn O’Neil]
How can business leaders develop a more nuanced approach to preventative mental health? A Black Dog Institute report highlights job insecurity and the perception of job insecurity produce a three-fold increase in rates of anxiety and depression (Black Dog Institute, 2020).
A UK study shows that pre-COVID19, parents were less likely to be experiencing mental distress than those without children. But by the end of April 2020, parents were more likely to be in distress than their childless peers (The Conversation, 2020). The Australian Medical Association (AMA) recently declared climate change a health emergency, as the term ‘eco-anxiety’ entered the lexicon (The Conversation, 2019). The excessive amount of time we spend inside (estimated to be 92% in the developed world) also attributes significantly to poor mental health, via a condition called biophilia hypothesis (MIT Sloan Review, 2020). Findings show that when we are in closer contact with nature, we tend to experience greater vitality and willpower, feel a sense of mental clarity, and engage in increased helping behaviour. Conversely, when we don’t, findings indicate that we are more susceptible to stress, depression, and aggression. Given that anecdotally, COVID-19 has seen more people reporting appreciation of increased access to the outdoors, imagine the impact a return to the office may have on work performance if not addressed.
How can an integrated mental health approach practically take into account such a broad array of competing issues? Let us return to the ‘Five Finger Strategy Support’ exercise.
In a time where increasingly, automation, augmentation, digital literacy and the gig economy dominate dialogue around the new world order, how are we addressing our employee’s certainty about their future career paths, their technical relevance and enduring skillset? Immediately, we see that workforce design and reskilling plans dove-tail into the organisational mental health strategy.
As we understand the competitive benefits of agile teams, adaptive mindsets, psychological safety and diverse points of view, we see how social identity and social order contribute to mental health. COVID-19 has shown us that the lives we have built, the identities we wear, the behaviours that define us are more flexible than they seem. We can change! How will this enable leaders across the business step up and see themselves as cross-functional change agents in the new normal? On the flip side, will our organisations adopt flexibility in terms of internal social order? Can we stagger our workforces to reflect the individual identities and competing demands of our employees?
As the issue of climate change returns to centre stage, how might we instil in our company purpose, our strategy and in our teams a direct connection with the environment? How does our social license to operate impact on the mental wellbeing of our people? Are volunteer days encouraged? Is there an avenue for employees to have company support for social or environmental initiatives? As impact investing becomes a trend, these questions will grow in significance.
When it comes to the physical environment of the workplace, how do we incorporate the human reality of air, light, water and stimulation into the mix? Are we innovating human interactions to capitalise on the natural world in our working lives? Can outdoor spaces become a part of the office landscape? How are we altering the timing, pace and duration of work blocks to optimise the employee experience? Will exercise breaks, remote working and walking meetings become the norm? Does the clock-on, clock-off industrial mindset give way to a new evolution of outcome over output? And if so, how are we leveraging the opportunity to combine mental health and productivity measures?
As learning, unlearning and relearning become an integrated part of our working lives, how will we harness the perspective COVID-19 has granted us in terms of future skills? An astonishing number of online education platforms have opened their access for employees during COVID-19. Has your organisation supported employees to take initiative in rethinking their own value proposition for the future? Should employees be encouraged to actively reframe and redesign their roles to play to new skills and sustainable value creation? If so, the mental health impact of a renewed sense of purpose and job security could be a game-changer.
The possible reconfiguration of mental health strategies are endless and the integrated approach, essential. The increased awareness of coping strategies across the population has opened the door for a broader conversation. The shared experience of isolation during a health crisis presents a unique opportunity to talk collectively about preventative mental health strategies. Georgie Harman of Beyond Blue says, ‘we have a moment in history for the structural reform, policy reform and investment reform of mental health services… we must not go back in time’ (Georgie Harman, DCA webinar, 11.05.20).
The mind is not isolated from the world that it lives in.
And the more we look at mental illness in isolation, the less likely we are to enable our own mental health as a society.
When I sat down to chat with renowned transformation strategist, Ron Gauci, we were discussing the mindset leaders need to cultivate in order to turn crisis-imposed business disruption into crisis-led business transformation. Ron’s practical and experienced-based tips seem to have struck a chord with the LinkedIn family and so this insights paper seeks to break down the information into actionable steps to take when every decision feels difficult.
Turn data into positive action.
Listen with empathy. Communicate with fact.
Formulate a strategy and communicate your plan.
Turn data into positive action.
“Never waste a crisis” says Ron, emphasising that we have one chance to earn and secure the trust of our people. And one chance to channel uncertainty away from panic and into opportunity. Leaders will be revealed in moments of stress and uncertainty, and for those heading up organisations, a situation of stress cannot mean being stressed. “We need to be making our best decisions under stress.”
This sounds logical in practice, however for many leaders around the world right now, every decision is a tough decision and every day is more of the same. The extended timeframe of the COVID-19 health pandemic and subsequent vacuum of economic progress means that war-time resilience is being called for. The only way we will collectively navigate through this is to turn data into positive action.
When we enter a crisis, it is critical to clear our minds of assumptions and understand the extent of the problem. Almost immediately, we embark on an exhaustive learning process taking in constantly updated information from multiple conflicting sources. On a grand scale, the global population has been called on to lead in this way. Collectively, we have taken a disease predicted by epidemiologists to be capable of a 10% (or higher) death toll, down to 6% (in the US) and well below that in other countries like Australia and New Zealand. Data has been crucial at every point of these public responses- from tracking infection rates to monitoring ICU admissions, undertaking predictive modelling of different interventions (and then testing against hard data post-implementation) and contact tracing those with positive covid diagnoses to contain the spread. When humans are given the data, we naturally draw insight. As leaders, we must listen with empathy but communicate with fact. This balances out the counterintuitive reality that information (even with negative implications) makes us feel calmer. Leaders have a responsibility to remove themselves from emotion and panic when it comes to decision-making.
Listen with empathy.
Communicate with fact.
What happens when leaders allow emotion to fuse with information in their messaging? We do not need to look far to witness examples of how contradictory messaging by leaders affects the population. Whether we look at the closing (and reopening) of schools across Australia, the guidance about whether or not face masks were useful by WHO or the “Liberate our states” phenomenon in America, a leader who separates data from action strikes the heart of a constituent at their most vulnerable.
In crisis, empathy will prove a critical competitive advantage for any leader. Authenticity is important at all times but in situations of heightened sensitivity, there’s a premium on it. According to studies carried out by Development Dimensions International (DDI), empathy is the biggest single leadership skill needed to drive loyalty, engagement and innovation. Dianne Crampton at Gonzaga University found that “Empathy is a universal team value that promotes high commitment and cooperation” (Fast Company, 2018). Empathy from leaders requires perspective. When every day feels like the next, how are we finding time to recharge and separate emotion from fact?
Ron argues that COVID-19 has taken away leaders’ natural calibration time. While plane travel or time commuting may have served as an opportunity to synthesise multiple data points and frequently changing data sets, today we need to carve out “big picture” time with a lighter footprint. For example, taking a walk without your device in tow, or listening to music that provides a sense of space. Working from home, blurred lines and back-to-back zoom schedules will lead to information overload. “Leadership is a lonely role,” says Ron. We each need to rely on our personal cabinet – a circle of experts who bring diverse perspectives – and trust our own judgment. The critical questions to ask ourselves? “What do I know in my gut? What is the current data telling me? How can I turn this into a positive action?”
Formulate a strategy.
Articulate your plan.
“Nothing grows while you’re choking it”. Ron acknowledges the easiest thing to do in crisis is to cut costs. However, the need for transformation to a new way of working was a pre-existing condition for many organisations before COVID-19 arrived on the scene. Macro timeframes must be developed in? the context of today’s decisions. How can we as leaders think simultaneously through putting out short-term fires while fanning long-term sparks?
Action or reaction? Tracking a path forward in a changing landscape can seem like a balance between planning for the worst and hoping for the best. This is why Ron advocates for the overlaying of multiple decision-making frameworks to pick and choose strategies based on emergent conditions.
Though many of these will be familiar to you, here are a few decision-making frameworks that could help:
30/60/90-day time horizons
The well-used 30/60/90-day plan is a simple and useful tool for formulating strategy from a growth mindset, gaining stakeholder buy-in and articulating forward planning to the team. The use of a familiar format means that while the immediate 30 days gives people a level of security, the 60-day horizons allow for alterations as emergent conditions arise, and the 90-day reference point retains a sense of purpose and future vision, needing to keep momentum. Strategist Mark Johnson describes the importance of ‘leading from the future’ in his book ‘How to Turn Visionary Thinking into Breakthrough Growth’ stating, ‘Future-back is both a process and a way of thinking that involves starting with a vision of a future state and working your way backwards to reverse engineer your path to it.’ (Read more)
Often used as a constant check-in along the way rather than a mechanism on its own, the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat framework can be a good exercise to get us thinking outside the box and joining the dots. Where are the new revenue opportunities? How is our business able to exist virtually? Encouraging our teams to think of threats and opportunities hand in hand when coming up with new solutions is a great way to foster innovation as a knee-jerk response in times of crisis. (Read more)
As we found talking to ADF veteran, Emma Grigson, scenario planning will play into agile strategy formulation across financial management, product design, workforce mapping and supply chain innovation. The definition of scenario planning is identifying a specific set of uncertainties, different “realities” of what might happen in the future of your business” (Mariton, March 2020). Each scenario should contain just enough detail to assess the likely success or failure of the strategic option. Scenarios may be built around one single question or sets of variables. These different realities could probe economic outcomes, product demand, supply chain resilience, competition manoeuvres, technology adoption, geopolitical instability, etc. Scenario planning reiterates that we will come through this uncertainty, but focusses energy on how we emerge when all is said and done. (Read more)
Issues-based ethical decision-making
Ethical decision-making frameworks are useful in shifting our focus to the macro effect of our day-to-day decisions. Perhaps we need to fundamentally shift how we think of growth for example? An ethical dilemma is an instance where opposing personal and professional values are perfectly balanced. The current crisis is playing out between the moral imperative of health vs economy. Hopefully, as we turn our minds to designing a new normal, we will pause to weigh up economy vs climate in a more concerted way. When every decision is a tough decision, an ethical approach acknowledges that we cannot control perfect outcomes however we can control accountability in trying to achieve them. (Read more)
Thinking fast and slow
Based on the work of Daniel Kahneman, the process of thinking fast/thinking slow seeks to elucidate our two-systems approach to decision-making. One method occurs at a more intuitive level, while the other requires greater critical thinking at a statistical level – automatic and controlled decision-making if you like. Which process do you find yourself using? The critical point is awareness. When decision-making under pressure, it can be tempting to perpetuate our own unconscious biases. However, the situation distinctly calls for a new interpretation of data. (Read more)
Ron’s point in the overlaying of multiple decision-making models in order to arrive at a strategy and communicable plan, I believe, is three-fold. Multiple modelling moves us away from our comfort zone and into the courage zone; the place where leaders do their best work. The layered effect neutralises incorrect or irrelevant data points while reinforcing those that consistently underpin the situation. And finally, we are able to give a firm basis to our stakeholders for believing in our plan. As Ron says, “people trust me because a) they see I have a plan, b) the plan sounds reasonable, and c) they know I’ve navigated these situations before and feel confident in my ability to see it through”.
The most important sustainable value is you.
Finally, as leaders who are required to sort emotion from fact, data from diatribe and intuition from statistical analysis, what new habits are we building for ourselves during COVID-19? As many of us find a new rhythm juggling personal relationships with conference calls, home-schooling schedules with additional crisis response activities and team wellbeing with our own physical and mental relief, how are we coping?
The advice from experts is to retain as much routine and structure as possible. However, I wonder if this approach in itself misses the opportunity to innovate? How many of us have felt for a long time that we are working to someone else’s schedule? Owned by necessity rather than optimal working rhythms. I would encourage us all to take this opportunity to reimagine our ways of working. Can we carve out some hours to do the deep concentration work? Can we take the opportunity of working from home to cultivate a rhythm of frequent micro-meditations? Are we leveraging the proximity to kitchens, closets and couches to be more attentive to our basic needs throughout the busy working day? Can we steal more precious moments with loved ones than the rhythm of our usual 9-5 (or longer!) allowed us?
When every day feels the same, and the economic outlook may require sustained pressure, how do we sustain ourselves?
Ten critical leadership steps for navigating COVID19 – In conversation with veteran Emma Grigson.
Within four short weeks, leaders have found themselves catapulted into three lines of fire:
DISORDER Confronting their own and their organisation’s preparedness to deal with a crisis event
REORDER – Enacting business continuity plans, protecting their people and pivoting strategic direction of their value proposition
NEW [WORLD] ORDER – Attempting to map the imminent restructuring of the global economic order
Last week Emma Grigson and I had a robust conversation about crisis leadership skills. Our interview addressed resounding requests from the LinkedIn family for skills and steps to navigate COVID-19. As an ADF veteran of 15 years, Former Health Operations Executive trained in strategic leadership and with experience in disease management in Washington D.C., Emma provided pragmatic advice on how leaders might tackle the challenge we are facing today, as well as plan for those we will inevitably face tomorrow. I asked her “why the ideas of preparedness and planning seem at odds with the disruption and chaos brought on by crisis”. She proceeded to give a compelling view of planned disruption and disrupted plans.
Let’s break it down…
Not only is COVID-19 a health pandemic, it’s also a test of leadership skills. As the extent of the economic and social impact continues to evolve, leaders, organisations, and governments are revealed in various states of preparedness, credibility, and adaptability. When contingency planning has not been factored into the fibre of an organisation, leaders and companies miss critical opportunities for honest communication and decisive action in the heat of a crisis.
In our chat, Emma outlined some critical steps that can be embedded into teams right from the planning stage:
1. Planning (to have no plan)
Whether you call it red teaming, wargaming or stress-testing, planning to have no plan should be part of every organisation’s source code. Why? Because this gives businesses a chance to hack their own strategy before an irretrievable amount of money, time or material resources have been invested.
Skill: Red teaming is a relatively simple process of fast iteration of scenario testing and has additional benefits. The process of making a plan and encouraging counterfactual arguments reveals not only weakness but new opportunities for innovation and growth. The practice also reinforces open communication, two-way respect and increases the responsibility the group feels for owning successful outcomes in the face of uncertainty.
2. Preparation (rehearsing innovation as an auto-response)
Skill: Rapid-fire role-playing should be dynamic and involve the broader leadership team, serving as robust preparation to embed a level of trust which will prove critical in tough times. When team members are clear on their role, relationships and empowered with prior knowledge, they are able to react without a plan. Leaders need to build core self-checks into the team long before a crisis arrives. For example, improvised critical thinking can be tested for alignment to the company value system, so kneejerk responses are on track to achieve an organisation’s underlying purpose or end goal. When speed of response is critical, it’s this prior understanding and muscle memory that defines what team members will be able to enact.
3. Execution (never shoot the messenger)
Skill: Framing information to combat fear. Bad news must not be covered up. Leaders should have expert sources of information accessible and at the ready. Communication will be key to consistency when new information is rapidly emerging. While leaders often cannot give certainty in crisis, they can give consistency in the way messages are delivered. Calm, clear messaging that looks outward rather than inward and frames information in a regular style and format will provide reassurance and cut through. In a crisis, the audience will be highly attuned to contradictions, so it is imperative that leaders closely align information and actions (even if the two are changing daily). Business Continuity Plans have been used by many organisations to connect external factors with internal measures. In execution, leaders must take control of what is within their control and further, seek to give back as much control to their people as possible.
Leadership example: Jacinda Ardern successfully enacted a Stage 4 shutdown over four days with an 80% national approval rating. Key skills deployed: Transparent information-sharing, decisive action, utilisation of a familiar framework from bushfires, empathy, collective narrative-building including a kids’ press conference and live-streamed feeds from home.
As business as usual reinvents itself virtually before our eyes, leaders are piecing together the scale, pace, and depth of action required to stay solvent while the health crisis abates. Employee well-being, brand reputation, finance management, supply chain, people strategy and legal issues all require attention.
4. Protect your people
Skill: Projecting a duty of care to stakeholders across the spectrum in times of crisis, is also a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to fortify relationships, build trust and garner loyalty from our employee and customer base (MIT Sloan, 2020). To care, is to focus outward on the collective and find ways to serve and support others. Your people must believe that their wellbeing is top of mind. How we communicate that authentically and follow up with action will be a key indicator of how we make our people feel at their most vulnerable – a measure that will never be forgotten. More broadly, contributing to the effort to evaluate and solve for mental and physical wellbeing during COVID-19 will define leadership and organisational success, given an economic reboot will require a fully engaged and productive workforce and customer base.
5. Communicate leadership (not followership)
Skill: Communicating with influence requires leaders to listen at least as much as they speak. Good leaders are careful to ensure targeted comms that solve a problem directly for an audience. Great leaders influence their audience to solve wider problems for the collective.
Leadership cannot follow. To have influence, one must rely on purpose, credibility and relevance. The latter factor seems to be the one leaders are struggling with. To many people, COVID-19 continues to represent a crisis felt financially and emotionally, rather than as an imminent health threat. Rational explanations and reassurance need to be complemented by an emotional response (AICD, March 2020).
Quickly leaders must drive and own a compelling narrative that shows recognition of the danger; empathy for the predicament, comprehension of the latest available data, action to ensure infrastructure to deal with implications, and ability to influence a united behavioural outcome. In the world of COVID-19, there are two levels of technical skills proving paramount: interpretation of the incoming information data; and the competence to use online messaging well to maximise leadership potential.
Leadership Example: Marriott CEO Arne Sorenson successfully demonstrated powerful leadership communication in his message to stakeholders when he spoke honestly about the losses his company is suffering and committed to forgoing a salary for the remainder of the year and cutting those of his executive team by 50 percent.
6. Scenario planning
Skill: Scenario planning will play into agile strategy formulation across financial management, product design, workforce mapping and supply chain innovation. The definition of scenario planning is identifying a specific set of uncertainties, different “realities” of what might happen in the future of your business” (Mariton, March 2020). Each scenario should contain just enough detail to assess the likely success or failure of the strategic option. Scenarios may be built around one single question or sets of variables. These different realities could probe economic outcomes, product demand, supply chain resilience, competition manoeuvres, technology adoption, geopolitical instability, etc. One way to explore each scenario is to build in a SWOT analysis to weigh internal strengths and weaknesses against external threats and opportunities implicated.
7. Mapping talent and deployable skills
Skill: Resourced based value creation suggests that while in the COVID-19 holding pattern, leaders should consider the value of time. One million jobs lost equates to around one billion hours of potential reskilling or upskilling opportunity in the next six months (ABC, 2020). Australia’s economy has slipped to rank 93rd in complexity (WEF, 2020), meaning our resilience in the face of various crises is low. To retain a future competitive advantage globally, companies need to ensure that technology adoption, as well as tech literacy and proficiency are inherent in their business models. Some leaders are already utilising the downturn to clear up that database and rethink product delivery, but pushing further and automating legacy processes or training people in high-demand future skillsets will likely prove advantageous. Moreover, reviewing the underutilised or potential skills of the current workforce enables a fast pivot of resources when new demand for new products comes to fruition.
8. One eye on the ground, one on the horizon
Skill: Think slow think fast. Leaders who can retain an intimate understanding of where their employee, customer and shareholder sentiment sits combined with a big picture analysis of government priorities and policies, global epidemiological indicators and social behaviour trends will be on the front foot when competitive positions are reset. Mapping next horizons can drive sustained engagement, role clarity and productivity as the bounce back suddenly requires the workforce to rev up again. Optimism founded in fact is a leadership trait worthy of special mention. Optimistic leaders naturally inspire and motivate those around them, in turn manifesting and detecting opportunity sooner than others.
Leadership Example: Levi Strauss CEO Chip Bergh, who wrote a letter to employees encouraging them to focus on the crisis’ silver lining. “One of the things motivating me through this difficult time is the idea that we can learn and adapt and adjust so we emerge stronger as a result of this test,” he wrote. The crisis “will pass. We will get through this together and be a better and stronger company as a result of it.” (The Conversation, 2020)
9. Reimagining the entire business system within a new context
‘Institutions that reinvent themselves to make the most of better insight and foresight, as preferences evolve, will disproportionally succeed’ (McKinsey, 2020). Contactless delivery, supply chains closer to the end-user, technology adoption to drive productivity when labour is unavailable will likely prove to be competitive advantages.
EY analysis predicts, “To operate successfully in this marketplace, businesses need a mindset of adaptive performance and a new framework to respond to volatility and grasp the opportunities that are now emerging.” The framework focuses on a reassessment of sustainable value, and can be overlaid with analysis of emerging conditions from the scenario planning discussed earlier.
Essentially, leaders must take this opportunity to disrupt themselves as well as their organisations. Many leaders are beginning to give voice to the suspicion that while COVID-19 will have devastating consequences, the world needed a reset. That our pace, consumption, way of life, was somehow getting away from us. Leaders who can recognise the opportunity to build a new normal, to dramatically restructure the economic and social order in which business and society have traditionally operated, will find themselves with a new plan, when the first bullet is fired.
And an army of new world leaders, ready for action.
Emma Grigson’s career with the Australian Defence Force has spanned almost 19 years. Within that time she has studied Leadership at the Royal Military College, trained and was appointed as a Medical Officer, trained in jungle warfare as well as intelligence operations and strategies, before being posted in Washington, to conduct analysis of disease and unusual health activities across the globe. Today Emma talks strategic leadership in crisis and shares tips and tools for “planning to have no plan.”
Here we are, signing off February – aka the psychological cemetery for 80% of New Year’s resolutions, according to the U.S. News & World Report (2018). Some of us are no doubt already feeling a little overwhelmed by everything we have set out to achieve in 2020. And some of us may be feeling downright crappy that we can’t seem to live up to our own high expectations of ourselves. But when it comes to change, there’s no quick fix… or is there? I think so, and the good news is that it is highly scalable!
The difference between who we are and who we want to be is a source of cognitive dissonance for many. I have long believed that the ritual of New Year’s Resolutions only serves to amplify and reinforce what we see as lacking in our selves. This perceived identity deficit, or gap, happens to be the engine room of our economy. The study of consumer behaviour has long known that to secure share of heart, mind and pocket, brands must promise to help close the gap between our current and desired state. The cynic in me knows however, that so long as each consumer purchase only goes part way to making us feel better, the gap will remain; the cycle of consumerism will continue, entwining emotions and economy as happy partners, and secure their measure of GDP growth. So how do we take back ownership of our gap and build bridges between who we are and who we want to be that allow us to grow sustainably?
My three top habit hacks
The science emerging around habits offers an alternative way to address the dissonance. The notion that ‘we are what we repeatedly do’ is a tangible and pragmatic way to master our goals, without expending significant money, time or even willpower in the process. As James Clear explains in his book ‘Atomic Habits’, it’s the tiny things that we do each day, that when enacted frequently and with consistency, define not only our behaviour, but our identity. Add to that accountability – the simple act of telling someone what we are hoping to achieve – and our chances of success increase by 70% (Matthews, 2015). Finally, own your start of day and end of day routines. These are powerful triggers in our daily cycle. Begin as you wish to continue, and continue as you wish to begin!
#1 MVH – Minimum Viable Habits
Minimum Viable Habits or MVH refers to the idea that successful behavioural change can be achieved by breaking down new habits into the smallest possible components. Think consistently placing a glass of water next to your bed each night if your end game is to drink 3 litres per day. Or simply putting on the gym gear every morning when you wake up if eventually, you want to do regular training. Due to the non-threatening and non-disruptive nature of MVHs, our brain doesn’t fight them. Once on the path to a new routine, the habits can be slightly tweaked to move you closer to real behavioural change at regular intervals.
The frame of reference I use to decide whether a habit is going to be worthwhile is whether I can do it frequently, and with consistency. The brain appreciates it when we can chunk routines down into a series of small, attainable habits – it gets to take a break! And that’s our chance to slide behavioural change in. The beauty of MVHs, is that humans have a tendency to want to be consistent. We like ticking off the list, showing we’ve made progress. The streaks app is a powerful tool that challenges its users: “Don’t break the chain, or your streak will reset to zero days.”
Science out of NASA traditionally holds that habits take 30 days to form. However more recently, research has shown it’s about the reps, if you are intentional about what you’re doing, small habits can be built, embedded, tweaked and scaled superfast.’
#2 Identity Habits – Say it Out Loud
Returning for a moment to the notion of cognitive dissonance, we all tend to portray ourselves to the world in our desired state. Whether that be the images we allow to appear on social media, the parts of our lives we select to portray when people ask how we’re doing, or simply preferencing carrying out tasks we already know we’re good at. Identity-based habits leverage this natural tendency in a positive way. We have a strong desire to be consistent with the version of ourselves we put out there, and so voicing a newly committed habit out loud, to people we care about, immediately makes us accountable.
The benefits of ‘saying it out loud’ however, seem to require careful selection of our accountability partner. Recent research out of The Ohio State University finds that people tend to be more committed to their goals after they share them with someone who they see as “higher status,” or whose opinions they respect. A Dominican University study found that more than 70% of participants who reported their progress to a friend were successful in goal achievement, compared to only 35% of participants who kept their goals to themselves. Numerous apps have popped up to facilitate social sharing of habits online, allowing users to select which goals they share and with whom they share their goals. The takeaway?
As humans, we are subconsciously strategic about the self we put forward to the world. In living up to this ‘self’, we benefit from being consciously strategic about sharing these goals with trusted and respected allies that will help champion our change. Who will hero your habits?
#3 Habits as Rituals – Own your start and end of day
For my 2020, I’ve been more attracted to wellness goals than productivity goals. This has brought into sharp focus the importance of setting the right tone each morning and closing out the day on the right note every evening. When we think of rituals, we tend to conjure tribal ceremonies, religious celebration or even tricky looking yoga poses accompanied by green juice. However, not all rituals need to be ornate, just quietly meaningful and easily repeatable.
When it comes to beginning and ending your days, simple rituals that embed intentionality can be extremely useful. The etymological meaning of ritual in zoology pertains to ‘giving each animal the time to assess the prowess of the other’. Therefore, ritual is about preparation, intentionality and ultimately, thriving in a sometimes hostile environment.
“Morning Sunshine” – my favourite a.m. habits
The morning rituals I have garnered along my journey involve:
1) a daily focus on the personal values I wish to live by
2) iterative realignment on both short and long-term goals
3) routine exercise and meditation
“Sweet Dreams” – 5 key p.m. habits
The other powerful point of intentionality happens just before we go to sleep. What is the last thing we think of each day?
1) a brain dump helps me transfer everything I have to do tomorrow to somewhere tangible so that it’s no longer on my mind
2) the Grateful app helps trigger a sense of humility, perspective and contentedness
3) my MVH is reading one chapter of a non-study, non-work book each night – thanks to this achievable practice, I’ve read three additional books already this year!
These small moments string together as a touchstone – helping steer the course when life throws unexpected challenges our way. These habits are less about closing the gap on our own cognitive dissonance and more about sitting in our true selves. As many leaders are realising, constant striving for growth is not necessarily socially healthy, environmentally sustainable, nor economically smart in the longer term. On a personal level too, ambition can start from within, rather than without.
I’d love to hear how you are getting along – what habit hacks work for you and what throws the routine out of whack? I’d even love to hear which New Year’s Resolutions you’ve buried.
The legacy we pass on to future generations will inevitably involve challenges, but must not be founded in hopelessness. The least we can do is track a road forward, most of all when the decisions of leaders seem to signal a dead end.
Interviewing former U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and other prominent leaders as MC for the Professional Convention Managers Association (PCMA) in San Francisco this month, we discussed how to move forward when the stakes are high and the path is unclear. Ultimately, she said, “you have to keep your wits about you, you have to trust your instincts and your gut, and those around you. You have to make the decisions, because not making a decision is making a decision.”
As the youth of today see the news of devastating bush fires in Australia, read the twitter trail of a global leader spreading divisive ideology across the world, experience underemployment even in the most developed countries, we can understand why statistics show an estimated 10–20% of adolescents globally experience mental health conditions (World Health Organisation, 2019). Add to this, almost half of all millennials think it’s more likely than not there will be a third world war in their lifetime, a new Red Cross surveyfinds. Are we going to let history write the future?
As a leader of today, Rice is clearly focused on empowering the leaders of tomorrow. She emphasises the need for those in charge to demonstrate trust in their people by delegating and investing in training. ‘We must allow them to colour outside the lines’ she says.
Can we imagine a democracy wherein the government actively comes to the youth for ideas, for better questions, even for solutions? I have been fortunate to have seen the success of initiatives such as the G20 Youth Summit in action. I believe there is so much to be gained in bringing different voices together to explore collaborative policy design and development. So long as we are clear on who our decisions are serving…
How does our democracy serve us?
“We are only as strong as our weakest link” says Rice. And I wonder, what if our weakest link is in fact, a democratically elected leader? Democracy operates at its best when functioning as a platform for ideas, dialogue and debate. Democracy is founded not on consensus, but contention. As famously penned by Evelyn Beatrice Hall (and often mis-attributed to Voltaire!), ‘I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it’ (1906).
When uncertainty is not met with curiosity but fear, democracy dies just a little. When injustice is met with depression and apathy rather than anger and outcry, democracy dies a little more. When our very existence is threatened by convenience and we continue on in indifference, then ‘democracy grief’ is real. The question is not how democracy is serving us, but how we are serving our democracy. “You can get through difficult times, but it doesn’t happen magically,” Rice says. She claims she doesn’t look to Washington or state government to take responsibility, but asks herself daily: “What am I doing to take responsibility?”
Like the air we breathe.
For those of us living in western countries, it is too easy to take liberal democracy for granted. Just as we are accustomed to each intake of clean air, each glass of pure drinking water, each child off to school and each purchase of the morning paper, the convenient assumption that we are free to express ourselves and steer our own course is pervasive. But is it true?
Democracy brings us convenience. But it’s a convenience built on consumption. And while we are consumed with consuming, we can’t step back with the objectivity, awareness and space to change our behaviour- our addiction to this convenient life.
What the young leaders of today are calling for is a new kind of democracy. One far more agile, active and connected at grass roots level. One typified by leadership that exhibits empathy and compassion, and is prepared to pioneer new policies and new ways of evaluating democratic health, like the government Jacinda Ardern is leading in New Zealand. One that is less lumbering, less strung out on political puppetry, one that doesn’t rely on never-ending growth to achieve the votes that will drive it forward. But globally, where is the alternative to growth? What is the political paradigm that will support this democracy of the future?
‘Democracy is like a muscle’ writes Carol Rose in the Boston Globe this month. ‘The more we exercise it, the stronger it gets.’ (Carol Rose, Boston Globe, 2019). As we move into 2020 and our own inconvenient truth becomes harder to ignore, I wonder, when was the last time many of us felt the energy of youth to fight against what has gone before? Where is the will to dismiss the diary appointments for today and instead dial up the challenge to the status quo – even when this status quo is paying down the credit card? Where does the will for activism come from?
Rice’s experience has given her perspective on the difficulties the nation faces today. In our interview she says, “I know it is a tough time, but we have been through tougher.” To be open when the inclination is to shut off, to take a risk when a calculated decision is impossible and to hope against despair – that is the legacy we need to leave the future generations.
Linguistically, democracy contains the idea of demonstration. So if nothing else, let us shake off the shackles of convenience and demonstrate our hope for the future.